The 17th century also was marked by the birth of modern empirical or experiment-driven science resulting in the separation of science and magic. Up until the Renaissance the rational thinking following the traditions of Plato and Aristotle was thought to be opposed to mystical ways of obtaining “concealed” knowledge using personal experience or a “secret” tradition. Such theories and practices as Alchemy, Astrology, Cabbala, and so on belonged to that second type, since they implied the ability to obtain knowledge by revelation rather than from a wise authority. The empirical knowledge was originally perceived as a part of the second paradigm since it implied personal experience as a source of knowledge, rather than studying the legacy of the scholars of the past. Many natural scientists were also influenced by mysticism. Even Isaac Newton himself paid a lot of efforts into the research of what would be called today occult studies, which constitutes a significant part of his written legacy. However, in the 17th century it was realized that empirical science has a method of its own, which is quite different from that of magic or mystics with their individual visionary “experiences.” In mechanics, the works by Galileo constituted this turn to the empirical science, as well as those by Isaac Newton (1643-1727), Gottfried Leibnitz (1643-1716), Robert Hooke (1635-1703), Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695). Remarkably, the first scientific journals, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society and Journal des Sçavans, both emerged in 1665 as a result of these developments and the emergence of what was called the natural philosophy.
Интересно, что современные полуобразованные борцы с религией "с естественно-научных позиций" забывают, что современная наука родом из магии и мистики. Идея экспериментальной, опытной науки до XVII века это идея о том, что индивидуальный мистический опыт может порождать новое знание. Что, разумеется, осуждалось религией и научной традицией, восходящей к Аристотелю и Платону, полагавшей, что знания можно черпать из умных книжек или из освященной временем традиции.