October 11th, 2012

Biomimetics and Intelligent Design (links)


На деле вроде бы никакой логической связи между бионикой / биомиметикой и эволюцией или креационизмом, полный нейтралитет. ИД - христианская концепция, в евр. мире (литвакском), как мне говорили, есть философские работы рава Авигдер Миллера против эволюции, но не знаю, насколько они интересны.

Другое дело -- упоминания в евр. источниках о создании искусственных существ, имитирующих живые (ведь человек создан по образу и подобию). Я в нашей книжке написал так:

Biomimetics (or biomimicry) means mimicking biological objects in order to design artificial objects with desirable properties (Bar-Cohen, 2005). The word is attributed to biophysicist Otto Schmitt (1913-1998) who was a polymath and, among other problems, attempted to produce a physical device that explicitly mimicked the electrical action of a nerve. Since the late 1950s the term “biomimetics” (Vincent et al., 2006) became popular. Another term that is frequently used, “bionics,” was coined in 1960 by Jack Steele of the US air force. The term “biomimetic” has replaced, to a certain extent, the term “bionics” in scientific literature. The latter became quite popular in science fiction. The word biomimetics first appeared in Webster’s dictionary in 1974 and is defined as “the study of the formation, structure or function of biologically produced substances and materials (as enzymes or silk) and biological mechanisms and processes (as protein synthesis or photosynthesis) especially for the purpose of synthesizing similar products by artificial mechanisms which mimic natural ones” (Bhushan, 2009). The idea of creating artificial devices mimicking living nature has inspired humankind since its very early days. Leonardo da Vinci studied birds’ flight and designed machines, but never made any (Vincent et al., 2006). The motif is found in the Greek myth of Daedalus and Icarus, who mimicked bird wings to create an artificial flying device. Mechanical birds, animals, and even humans are found in many ancient legends, for example, the Talmud speaks about mechanical golden animals and peacocks in the throne of King Solomon, as well as an artificial human-like dummy (later called Golem) created by Cabbalistic magic.

Кстати, в первом варианте было oriental legends (восточные легенды), но мне посоветовали слово oriental убрать, потому что, мол, оно "неполиткорректное" (типа, его употребляют только колониалисты и расисты.). Цензура, да. :)