"Методика расчета усилий затяжки болтовых соединений приварных фланцев. Приварные
встык фланцы (рис. 1) имеют конические втулки - шейки. Втулка фланца приваривается стыковымшвом к обечайке и значительно увеличивает прочность фланца."
Typical methods of fastening or joining parts use such devices as bolts, nuts, cap screws, setscrews, rivets, spring retainers, locking devices, pins, keys, welds, and adhesives. Studies in engineering graphics and in metal processes often include instruction on various joining methods, and the curiosity of any person interested in mechanical engineering naturally results in the acquisition of a good background knowledge of fastening methods. Contrary to first impressions, the subject is one of the most interesting in the entire field of mechanical design.
The material of the nut must be selected carefully to match that of the bolt. During tightening, the first thread of the nut tends to take the entire load; but yielding occurs, with some strengthening due to the cold work that takes place, and the load is eventually divided over about three nut threads. For this reason you should never reuse nuts; in fact, it can be dangerous to do so.
Короче, никогда не реюзайте натсы. Чревато.
In the previous section, we determined the stiffness of the fastener in the clamped zone. In this section, we wish to study the stiffnesses of the members in the clamped zone. Both of these stiffnesses must be known in order to learn what happens when the assembled connection is subjected to an external tensile loading.
В прошлой главе мы изучали твердость болтов, а в этой будем изучать члены.
If there is no gasket, the stiffness of the members is rather difficult to obtain, except by experimentation, because the compression region spreads out between the bolt head and the nut and hence the area is not uniform. There are, however, some cases in which this area can be determined.
Вот ведь бред какой. Хотя, наверно, для инженеров это имеет какой-то смысл.