Любопытная статья о механике до (и включая) XVI в.; эта же статья вошла в перевод трактата Джузеппе Молетти. Автор говорит о трех традициях средневековой механики: натурфилософской, иордановой (имеется в виду Иордан Неморарий) и архимедовой.
"Sixteenth-century mechanics was distinguished from other sciences by four main
characteristics, which remained constant throughout the century: first, it was a
theoretical science rather than a manual art; second, it was mathematical, al-
though its subject was natural; third, it concerned motions and effects outside
of or even against nature; and fourth, it produced them for human ends."
. . . . .
"The chief characteristic of mechanics was that it was directed towards human
ends. It was defined as much by this goal as by its proper subject and methods,
for the qualification "for human ends" was one of the characteristics that dis-
tinguished mechanics from natural philosophy, which was considered to be in-
dependent of human ends. The other characteristic, of course, was that me-
chanics was mathematical. That mechanics treated mathematically the same
subject as natural philosophy was analyzed in the sixteenth century through the
medieval theory of the intermediate sciences and in the seventeenth through
Zabarella's version of that theory."
Выходит, задолго до "Двух новых наук" Галилея (а eго две новые науки - это сопромат и кинематика) механика уже была в сложных взаимоотношениях с физикой и математикой... Нужно иметь в виду, что Laird пишет об итальянцах, скажем, про оксфордских калькуляторов вы у него не найдете.